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water loss

Catalogue: Ground Cover
Zones based on water use efficiency and variable rate inputs are helping Peter Kuhlmann remain viable on his low-rainfall property near Ceduna, South Australia... At the SPAA Expo in South Australia in February, Peter explained the farming practices he uses to collect and conserve the limited rainfall received by his property... One tool to help maximise crop water use and minimise water loss is stubble retention, using: no-till with knife points - tillage beneath the row is used to help reduce the root disease Rhizoctonia; presswheels; wider row spacing - less crop competiton and allows inter-row sowing to improve seedling establishment due to protection from wind; and early and dry sowing with good seed and nutrient placement...
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Catalogue: Ground Cover
Zones based on water use efficiency and variable rate inputs are helping Peter Kuhlmann remain viable on his low-rainfall property near Ceduna, South Australia... At the SPAA Expo in South Australia in February, Peter explained the farming practices he uses to collect and conserve the limited rainfall received by his property... One tool to help maximise crop water use and minimise water loss is stubble retention, using: no-till with knife points - tillage beneath the row is used to help reduce the root disease Rhizoctonia; presswheels; wider row spacing - less crop competiton and allows inter-row sowing to improve seedling establishment due to protection from wind; and early and dry sowing with good seed and nutrient placement...
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Catalogue: GRDC Updates
SCHEDULING AND OTHER TACTICS TO IMPROVE IRRIGATED WATER USE EFFICIENCY - A FOCUS ON CENTRE PIVOTS AND LATERAL MOVES.. The variation in water application increases rapidly with small decreases in CU. Figure 2 shows an example of a typical catch transect for a centre pivot with end gun showing the variation in the volume of water being applied along the machine... Current research is investigating automated control strategies using sensor input to effectively manage spatially and temporally varied irrigation applications under centre pivots and lateral moves in real-time...
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Catalogue: Nuffield Scholar Reports
Completed: February 2007 Nuffield Australia Project No: RABO 090 Sponsored by: 2007 Nuffield Australia... Leigh Vial Aerobic and AWD Rice systems Sponsored by: Rabobank 1.. In summary, the main strategies employed to reduce losses are to reduce the period of water ponding within a given growing season, reduce crop duration (provided yield is maintained), cover the soil surface with some form of mulch and establish canopy cover as quickly as possible...
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Catalogue: GRDC Updates
Figure 1: Net returns ($/farm) as a function of area irrigated for a cotton farm with limited water using production cost for 1986 and 2006 and cotton price of $300 and $500/bale (from Payero and Harris, 2007)... Amount and timing of water requirements vary with crop and growth stage producers should chose wisely what crops to irrigate and should schedule irrigations to avoid or minimize stress during the reproductive periods when crop evapotranspiration is high... The timing of irrigation is critical and irrigation should be scheduled so that water stress is minimized during the reproductive stages when ETc is usually the highest...
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Catalogue: Ground Cover
Evaporation models to improve water management.. The data covered a diversity of rainfall (light to heavy), seasonal weather variation and quantities of water available to evaporate from the soil... As would be expected, all soils lose more water in the hotter months, Dr Foley says...
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Catalogue: Ground Cover
Scientists in the National Agricultural Nitrous Oxide Research Program (NANORP), which is administered by the GRDC, coordinated by Queensland University of Technology and funded by the Australian Department of Agriculture, have been exploring how irrigation scheduling can reduce nitrogen (N) losses in irrigated broadacre cropping systems, and be used as a nitrous oxide (N 2 O) mitigation strategy... Irrigated farming systems offer the potential to be able to reduce fluxes of N 2 O to the atmosphere and other soil N losses, while at the same time ensuring high yields... Data obtained from the study includes that:n cumulative N2O emissions were reduced by about 50 per cent and 25 per cent when irrigation was applied in 30 and 60-millimetre events, respectively, compared with the usual grower practice of approximately120mm irrigation events; smaller N2O emissions in 30 and 60mm irrigation water applications resulted from avoiding large N2O emission pulses immediately following irrigation; losses of water below the root zone decreased from 48 per cent in the 120mm treatment to 14 per cent in the 30mm irrigation while mineral N losses through leaching decreased from 20 per cent in the 120mm to three per cent in the 30mm irrigation; and plant N uptake in the 30 and 60mm irrigations was significantly higher than at 120mm irrigation...
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Catalogue: Ground Cover
Scientists in the National Agricultural Nitrous Oxide Research Program (NANORP), which is administered by the GRDC, coordinated by Queensland University of Technology and funded by the Australian Department of Agriculture, have been exploring how irrigation scheduling can reduce nitrogen (N) losses in irrigated broadacre cropping systems, and be used as a nitrous oxide (N 2 O) mitigation strategy... Irrigated farming systems offer the potential to be able to reduce fluxes of N 2 O to the atmosphere and other soil N losses, while at the same time ensuring high yields... Data obtained from the study includes that:n cumulative N2O emissions were reduced by about 50 per cent and 25 per cent when irrigation was applied in 30 and 60-millimetre events, respectively, compared with the usual grower practice of approximately120mm irrigation events; smaller N2O emissions in 30 and 60mm irrigation water applications resulted from avoiding large N2O emission pulses immediately following irrigation; losses of water below the root zone decreased from 48 per cent in the 120mm treatment to 14 per cent in the 30mm irrigation while mineral N losses through leaching decreased from 20 per cent in the 120mm to three per cent in the 30mm irrigation; and plant N uptake in the 30 and 60mm irrigations was significantly higher than at 120mm irrigation...
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Catalogue: Ground Cover
"A realistic understanding of the soil's capacity to store water and assess available water prior to seeding will help in identifying planting opportunities and potential crop yields," he says. ".. A measure of a cropping system's capacity to convert water into plant biomass or grain, WUE includes water stored in the soil and rainfall during the growing season... Mr Kearns says WUE is determined by a range of factors, such as the soil's ability to capture and store water and a crop's ability to access stored water in the soil and rainfall in the season...
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Catalogue: GRDC Publications
Assuming a single soil evaporation parameter to benchmark water use efficiency is a very coarse simplification, and possibly the main source of error in estimating water use efficiency using the French and Schultz approach... Selecting a variety to match to a time of sowing so that flowering occurs during the flowering window is an important management decision to improve yield and water use efficiency... The effect of sowing rate on water use efficiency in winter cereals is strongly influenced by the amount of soil moisture leading into spring...
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