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phosphates

Catalogue: GRDC Updates
For the majority of situations, farmers will need to inoculate the seed or soil with the appropriate strain of rhizobia at sowing in order to ensure good levels of nodulation... The NSW Department of Primary Industries and other state Departments of Agriculture take the conservative approach and recommend that all legumes are inoculated at sowing... There are far less problems with unnecessary inoculation than not using inoculants when they are needed...
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Catalogue: GRDC Updates
Early availability to phosphorus is crucial, phosphorus deficiency limits wheat grain yield principally by depressing early growth, leaf emergence rate and maximum rate of tiller emergence (Rodriguez et al. 1999).. Better placement of phosphorus has the potential to increase phosphorus use efficiency in cropping systems on all soil types... Table 1 notes: Mn, Cu, Zn and B are measured in g/tonne (*)...
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Catalogue: GRDC Updates
PLANT TISSUE TESTING - AN UNDER UTILISED TOOL FOR DIAGNOSING HIDDEN HUNGER IN CROPS.. Results suggest the P removal values in grain used for wheat (3.4 kg/t) and chickpea (3.7 kg/t) are about right... Repeated Starter-Z applications will increase the soil DTPA-Zn levels if the soil levels are likely to be above the suggested critical values ( H 0.8 mg/kg) growers may opt to apply P only at sowing and collect a tissue test for confirmation of not only Zn adequacy, but Cu, Fe, Mn and B also...
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Catalogue: GRDC Updates
Cotton in rotation with winter cereals is common practice with wheat being the favoured rotation crop... Despite this, the majority of cereal crops are achieving low or inconsistent yields and are only partly delivering the rotational benefits and subsequent increase in profitability possible in the system... A planting method comparison was conducted comparing one of the conventional methods of sowing used in the Northern region, which is, spreading seed followed by cultivation with that of a precision disc opener combine planter...
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Catalogue: GRDC Updates
Relationship between growth stage and accumulated uptake of nitrogen by a wheat crop, expressed as a percentage of the total uptake... Optimising N supply is difficult in western regions given the highly variable seasons. Excessive application of N may increase water use early in the growing season leading to greater water stress during flowering and grain fill, resulting in poor grain set or shrivelled grain... There was no significant effect of N rate on grain yield but the effect on protein was significant with protein increasing with rates of applied N. As for the sowing time trial, there was a negative correlation between grain yield and grain protein concentration, and Gregory did not differ from other varieties...
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Catalogue: GRDC Updates
While pulses have traditionally been viewed as a higher risk crop to grow, with improvements in pulse breeding and with the use of RTK guidance (allowing pulses to be sown in standing stubble), these perceived risks need to be reassessed as they are much lower than what they once were... In the circumstances using fertilisers that have a higher sulphur content, like MES 10 or Airseeder Superfect, can be beneficial... Chickpeas in particular are well suited to be grown on even wider row spacing's of 24-30", as the wider rows allow more plants to access soil moisture in the inter row later in the season and during grain fill...
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Catalogue: GRDC Updates
We have used average prices for each crop: $200/t for sorghum, $250/t for wheat, $400/t for chickpeas and $700/t for mungbeans... At Gindie we produced an extra 600 kg/ha sorghum in 2011/12 and an extra 500 kg/ha chickpeas in 2013, which would return an extra $320/ha for the first 2 crops after application using average crop values... At Wondalli we produced an extra 500 kg/ha sorghum in 2008/09 followed by an extra 650 kg/ha wheat in 2011, which would return an extra $263/ha for the first 2 crops after application using average crop values...
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Catalogue: GRDC Updates
The structure of roots is a consequence of their primary functions- growing through an abrasive medium (the soil), acting as plumbing to absorb and transport water to the shoot, and actively and selectively absorbing essential nutrients such as mineral N (nitrate and ammonium), inorganic P and K. the structure of leaves is designed to absorb radiation for photosynthesis, regulate evaporative losses of water, act as a sink for nutrients and water transported from the root system, and produce carbohydrates from photosynthesis... The root surface comprises a layer of epidermal ('skin') cells (some with extensions or 'root hairs') that absorb water through their cell walls and cell membranes and which have specific sites where nutrient forms such as nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and potassium are bound onto 'carrier' molecules and transported across the cell membrane into the interior of the cell... Any so-called microbial activators or mineral-solubilising microorganisms are operating in a hostile environment full of competitors...
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Catalogue: GRDC Updates
One proposal is that supplying a concentrated source of P allows the root system to forage more widely and exploit a greater volume of soil, and a greater amount of P may be available to generate biomass, and ultimately yield... Observing real root behaviour, examining root length, density and proliferation and converting that to C allocated allows us to understand whether we can use both our applied P investments more effectively, and create root architecture that is more profitable... We are currently using micro-CT scanning to monitor cereal root behaviour in response to patches of P. These techniques involve growing cereals in small columns that are able to be easily scanned, and reconstructing the root systems of these cereals in 3D to allow root responses to be observed as they develop...
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Catalogue: GRDC Updates
Since the soil P tests that growers and advisors use for their fertiliser decisions were calibrated using conventional tillage and narrow row spacing's, we are investigating the effect of increasing row spacing, and increased concentrations of P in the seeding furrow, on P fertiliser responses... The Temora trial was dry sown and received rain shortly after sowing whereas the Condobolin trial was sown into good moisture, but in both cases establishment percentage declined as seeds were sown more closely together, whether from increasing seeding rate or widening row spacing... A row spacing by phosphorus trial from 2008 was re-sown in 2009, using 2 cm auto steer so that treatments of on-row and inter-row seeding were superimposed at rates of 0, 4 or 8 kg/ha of phosphorus, using the same row spacing for each plot as used in 2008...
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