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Catalogue: GRDC Final Reports
The effects of genes on traits in wheat of commercial importance were estimated using large plant breeding data sets, diagnostic markers and sophisticated statistical methods... The earliest successes occurred with the genes controlling grain quality in wheat, in particular enabling wheat breeders to select against alleles, or variants, of the glutenin and puroindoline genes that had negative effects on dough rheology traits (dough strength and dough extensibility) and on milling yield... It is suspected that Glu-D3 might interact with storage protein activator (SPA) genes the project team has begun typing the same lines used for Glu-D3 with a diagnostic marker developed by French scientists for SPA-B. Wheat breeding collaborators in Australian Grain Technologies (AGT) and LongReach have given this a high priority, because interactions between SPA and glutenin genes might explain why cultivars such as Bolac have higher than expected grain quality, while the reverse occurs for cultivars such as H45 ...
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Catalogue: Ground Cover
Scientists share keys to drought tolerance Some of the world's leading crop researchers met in Adelaide recently to discuss breeding strategies for increasing plants' water-use efficiency By Gio Braidotti With global grain stocks at their lowest levels in decades and water stress accounting for a glaring proportion of global shortfalls, the 2007 Genomics Symposium in Adelaide allowed some of the world's best drought-tolerance pre-breeders to put their heads together on new ways to test, select and dissect traits that can maintain yields under drought... Overall, genomics is currently playing a more peripheral role in the work of conventional pre-breeders, with scientists attempting to dissect the genetic basis of drought tolerance and map traits to discrete chromosomal subregions (called QTLs or quantitative trait loci)... The number of GM field-trials is on the rise...
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Catalogue: GRDC Final Reports
The mechanisms that the fungi use to infect plants are poorly understood... Genes in repetitive-rich regions can be lost and gained readily, which may account for the short period of time in which populations of the fungus overcome resistance conferred by single genes e.g. two years for sylvestris-derived resistance... Other genes identified by this approach include those encoding histones, thiolase, 'hypothetical' proteins, as well as proteins involved in cell wall structure and integrity...
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Catalogue: GRDC Final Reports
In some fungal plant pathogens, LysM protein effectors, which bind the polysaccharide chitin, are essential for infection as they help fungi to evade detection by the plant... They help fungi to evade detection by the plant by mopping up chitin fragments released from the fungal cell wall that can act to induce an immune response by the plant to infection... It is likely that the other LysM genes were compensating for the decrease in expression of Lm5LysM and further work would be required to define the function of each gene...
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Catalogue: Ground Cover
Dr Marcroft says the spores that attack crops each year are produced on canola stubble in the previous summer and autumn... "When you sow a canola variety, you will inevitably be selecting for blackleg spores that are able to attack the resistance genes in that variety," Dr Marcroft says... "The project has just started but we have tested the screening method in a shade house in Horsham and it works," Dr Marcroft says...
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Catalogue: Ground Cover
New breeding strategy offers more durable crop improvement.. Dr Singh says agriculture has to move on from 'catch-up' breeding, in which a trait addresses an issue but the benefit is temporary, due to the environmental or disease challenge changes... Dr Sybil Herrera works with Dr Singh on the GRDC-supported Durable Rust Resistance in Wheat initiative, led by Cornell University, trying to identify the genes that provide APR...
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Catalogue: Ground Cover
Biotechnology has a new cause c l bre that supersedes GM technology in much the same way that smartphones overtook cell phones.. Called gene editing, the new method is more subtle and precise than anything that precedes it.. Included is a human trial of HIV patients in 2014 that saw half of the participants able to stop taking anti-viral drugs since gene editing increased the resistance of immune cells to the virus by inactivating a human gene used by the virus to infect these cells...
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Catalogue: Ground Cover
" Date: 01.07.2005 'Why is it so' drives search for gene defences.. Dr East says that genetics, and the profound effects that genes have on organisms, inspired him to find answers to questions such as why some insect species are successful crop pests, and how plants can defend themselves against them. ".. Tools that can "read" the genome (complete genetic makeup) of insects, and DNA micro-arrays, which show what genes are making proteins under different conditions, enable Dr East and his colleagues to explore insect-plant interactions at a more fundamental level than was previously possible...
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Catalogue: Ground Cover
Net tightens around wheat's ancient nemesis.. Of the two genes, Sr33 was cloned in Australia from the goatgrass genome (Aegilops tauschii), a wild relative that is the progenitor of bread wheat's D genome (one of three genomes that cohabitate in bread wheat and originate from different progenitor wheat species)... "Isolating the genes also means we can start building DNA cassettes with selected combinations of the most useful forms of resistance - and possibly other valuable traits like tolerance to saline soils," Dr Lagudah says, referring to the salt-tolerance genes also isolated at CSIRO with GRDC support...
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Catalogue: Ground Cover
In a major research breakthrough, three disease-resistance genes have been introduced into bread wheat from wild grasses using a new technique that finally overcomes the risk of also transferring regressive traits.. Bread wheat contains the genomes from three progenitor grasses and nature's pairing rules ensure chromosomes from the A, B, and D genome only pair with chromosomes from the same genome type... "The B genome carries a gene called Ph1 that is very important for controlling chromosome pairing," Dr Larkin says...
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