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Modelling gross margins and potential nitrogen exports from cropland in south eastern Australia

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The extra water used by a well grown crop can reduce drainage volumes and reduce nitrogen exports, even if fertiliser is used to achieve that extra growth... : The lowest upfront application of nitrogen that facilitates reasonable crop establishment and yield potential minimises nitrogen exports, minimises sunk costs (i.e. costs which cannot be recovered) in the case of an adverse season, and allows the farmer the flexibility to adjust their fertiliser strategy, and potential gross margins in response to seasonal conditions... Nutrients such as N, that may be exported dissolved in water (i.e. nitrate), often comprise a larger proportion of total exports when compared with systems using deep cultivation (>250 mm) (Kimmell et al., 2001)...